Hospice Care for Lung Disease & Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients

If you are reading this, it is likely that you or someone you love has been waging a difficult physical and emotional battle against chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or another form of lung disease, such as:

  • Bronchiectasis
  • Chronic asthma
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Emphysema
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Tuberculosis

Your search for comfort, support, and answers does not stop when you decide to discontinue treatment or respiratory support. Reducing or discontinuing medical support affects the whole family. That’s when VITAS can help.  

Hospice for Pulmonary Fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis causes lung scarring that can make it difficult to breathe. End-stage pulmonary disease includes:

  • Disabling dyspnea
  • Progressive symptoms such as:
    • Multiple hospitalizations
    • Cor pulmonale (right-sided heart failure)
    • Recent intubation
    • Recurrent exacerbations with pneumonia or bronchitis
    • An increased need for O2/oral steroids

Weight loss, resting tachycardia > 100/min, abnormal ABGs or O2 saturation, and continuous oxygen therapy are additional indicators of a poor prognosis.

Hospice care can help manage the symptoms of advanced pulmonary fibrosis and reduce hospital readmissions. The services of a hospice interdisciplinary team can help relieve the burden of care on family caregivers and increase the quality of life for patients.

Hospice for Emphysema

Emphysema is one of several lung conditions that fall under the umbrella of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With emphysema, the air sacs in the lungs are damaged, creating larger air spaces. As a result, oxygen is not adequately transferred to the bloodstream, and the patient experiences persistent shortness of breath.

The indicators listed above for pulmonary fibrosis also apply to the advanced stages of emphysema. Hospice care is the only post-acute care option that offers multiple levels of care to address patients’ symptoms and care preferences.

When is the Right Time to Consider Hospice for Lung Disease or COPD?

When watching a loved one with lung disease decline, it can be difficult to determine when it might be time for hospice. In general, hospice patients are thought to have six months or less to live. Only a doctor can make a clinical determination of life expectancy. However, when a patient with lung disease or COPD becomes increasingly concerned about their ability to breathe and their declining condition, both the patient and family will likely benefit from hospice services.

In general, hospice for lung disease may be beneficial when the patient:

  • Has made repeated trips every few months to the emergency room for respiratory failure or lung infections
  • Has been repeatedly hospitalized every few months and no longer wishes to be hospitalized
  • No longer wishes to be intubated

The patient’s pulmonologist or personal physician may recommend hospice when the time is right. But patients and family members often must act as their own advocates to receive the care they need. You, your loved one, or your physician may request an evaluation to see if hospice is an appropriate option for care.

Are you a healthcare provider? Learn about the clinical characteristics of end-stage COPD, other forms of lung disease, and download a PDF of our hospice eligibility guidelines.

Hospice provides control over care at the end of life. Start the discussion today.

What Can Hospice Do for a Patient with End-Stage Lung Disease or COPD?

Your hospice team evaluates the patient’s status and updates the plan of care as symptoms and conditions change, even on a day-to-day basis. The goal of hospice is to relieve physical and emotional distress so patients can retain their dignity and remain comfortable.

Hospice offers comprehensive services for patients with end-stage lung disease and COPD, such as:

  • A pre-emergency breathing plan – People with lung disease typically have one primary concern: what will happen if they can’t breathe? The hospice team develops an individual plan that details specific interventions for respiratory distress. The plan is designed to bring severe symptoms under control at home. This pre-emergency plan gives patients and their families peace of mind and a sense of control and security.
  • Reduced episodes of respiratory distress – The care plan includes medical and non-medical methods for reducing episodes of respiratory distress and the anxiety they cause.
  • Quick response to respiratory distress – At VITAS, a member of the hospice team is available around the clock to assist when an episode of respiratory distress occurs.
  • Care for patients wherever they live – In their homes, long term care facilities, or assisted living communities. If symptoms become too difficult to manage at home, inpatient hospice services can provide round-the-clock care until the patient is able to return home.
  • Coordinated care at every level – A plan of care is developed with the advice and consent of the patient’s pulmonologist or other physician. A team manager ensures that information flows between all physicians, nurses, social workers, and, at the patient’s request, clergy. In addition, hospice coordinates and supplies all medications, medical supplies, and medical equipment related to the patient's terminal lung disease diagnosis.
  • Emotional and spiritual assistance – Hospice has the resources to help patients maintain their emotional and spiritual well-being.

How Can Hospice Help the Family of a Patient with Lung Disease?

Family members may have to make difficult healthcare and financial decisions, act as caregivers, and provide emotional support to others. If the decision is made to stop respiratory support, families experience strong emotions and feel overwhelmed.

Hospice offers comprehensive services for families of patients with end-stage lung disease or COPD:

  • Caregiver education and training – The family caregiver is vital in helping hospice professionals care for the patient. As the patient gets weaker, symptoms increase and communication becomes more difficult. We relieve families’ concerns by educating them on how best to care for their loved one.
  • Help with difficult decisions – Hospice helps families make tough choices that impact the patient’s condition and quality of life—for example, whether or not to give antibiotics for a recurring infection.
  • A VITAS nurse by phone 24/7 – Even the most experienced caregivers will have questions and concerns. With Telecare, they don’t have to wonder, worry or wait for an answer. The heartbeat of VITAS after hours, Telecare provides trained hospice clinicians around the clock to answer questions or dispatch a team member to the bedside.
  • Financial assistance – Although hospice services are covered by Medicare, Medicaid/Medi-Cal, and private insurers, families may have financial concerns brought about by their loved one’s extensive illness. Social workers can assist families with financial planning and finding financial assistance during hospice care. After a death, they can help grieving families find financial assistance through human services, if needed.
  • Respite care – Caring for a loved one with advanced illness can cause tremendous stress. Hospice offers up to five consecutive days and nights of inpatient care for the patient in order to give the caregiver a break.
  • Bereavement services – The hospice team works with surviving loved ones for a full year after a death to help them express and cope with their grief in their own way.

What are the Overall Benefits of Hospice Care?

If you or a loved one is facing a life-limiting illness, you may be aware of the specialized medical care for patients or the support services for loved ones made possible through hospice. But most people are unaware of the many other benefits of hospice. 

  • Comfort. Hospice gives patients and families the support and resources to assist them through this challenging chapter of life and help them remain in comfortable and familiar surroundings.
  • Personal attention. When the hospice team works with a patient or family, they become participants in the end-of-life process, a very personal experience. The hospice mission is to care for each person individually. We listen to patients and loved ones. We advocate for them. We work to improve their quality of life.
  • Reduced rehospitalization. In the last months of life, some people who are seriously ill make frequent trips to the emergency room; others endure repeated hospitalizations. Hospice care reduces rehospitalization: a study of terminally ill residents in nursing homes shows that residents enrolled in hospice are much less likely to be hospitalized in the final 30 days of life than those not enrolled in hospice (24% vs. 44%)1.
  • Security. One of the greatest benefits of hospice is the security that comes from knowing that medical support is available whenever you need it. The VITAS Telecare program assures healthcare support around the clock. And VITAS gives families the training, resources and support they need to care for their loved one.

1Miller SC, Gozalo P, Mor V. Hospice enrollment and hospitalization of dying nursing home patients. American Journal of Medicine 2001;111(1):38-44

How Can I Approach the Hospice Discussion with My Loved One(s)?

The final months and days of life are frequently marked by strong emotions and hard decisions. Talking about hospice, even with those closest to you, can be difficult. Here are some tips to get the discussion going.

For Patients Speaking to Families

  • Education is key. Educate yourself first. By now, you’ve probably done some research on this website. It might also be helpful for you to learn some common misconceptions about end-of-life care, as your family may be misinformed about the realities of hospice. Reading our Hospice Family Discussion Guide will help. 
  • Determine what your loved ones know. Before bringing up hospice, make sure your loved ones have a clear understanding of your health status. People handle difficult information in different ways. If family members are not accepting or understanding of your prognosis, you might want to have your physician, clergy, or a trusted friend speak with them on your behalf.
  • Discuss your goals for the future, as well as theirs. As a patient, your greatest concern might be to live without pain, stay at home or not to be a burden. Ask your loved ones what their concerns are when they consider the coming months, weeks and days. Explain that hospice is not giving up. It is an active choice to ensure that everyone’s needs are met.
  • Take initiative. Remember, it’s up to you to express your wishes. Sometimes, out of concern for your feelings, your family or loved ones might be reluctant to raise the issue of hospice care for you.

For Families Speaking to Patients

  • Ask permission. Asking permission to discuss a difficult topic assures your loved one that you will respect and honor their wishes. Say something like, “I would like to talk about how we can continue to ensure you get the very best care and attention as your condition progresses. Is that okay?”
  • Determine what is important to your loved one. Ask them to consider the future: “What are you hoping for in the coming months, weeks or days? What are you most concerned about?” The patient might express a desire to be comfortable, to stay at home or to not become a burden.
  • Discuss hospice care as a means of fulfilling the patient’s wishes. Now that your loved one has told you what is important, explain that hospice is a way of making sure wishes and desires are met. For some, the word hospice evokes a false notion of giving up. Explain that hospice is not about surrendering to disease or death. It is about bringing quality of life to the patient’s remaining months, weeks or days.
  • Assure the patient that they are in control. Hospice gives patients options: the option to remain in the comfort of their own home, the option to take advantage of as much emotional and spiritual support as they desire, the option to have their own doctor actively involved in their care. Reassure your loved one that you will honor their right to make choices about what is most important in life.
  • Be a good listener. This is a conversation, not a debate. Hear what the other person is saying. Know that it is normal to encounter resistance the first time you talk about hospice care. But if you listen and understand your loved one’s barriers and reasons for resisting, you will be prepared to address and ease their concerns in your next hospice discussion.

Call VITAS to learn more about hospice and palliative care options.


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